AN ESTIMATE of the Sum required for facilitating Emigration
from the South of Ireland to the Canadas; for the year 1825.
THIRTY THOUSAND POUNDS.
Downing Street, 18 March 1825
I AM directed by Lord Bathurst to transmit to you the copy of a Report of Mr. Peter Robinson, who was employed by His Majesty’s Government as the Superintendent of Emigration from the South of Ireland to Canada, in the year 1823; and I am to desire that you will lay the same before the Lords Commissioners of the Treasury, acquainting their Lordships, that Lord Bathurst strongly recommends that the experiment should be continued during the present year, and requests that their Lordships will submit to Parliament an Estimate for granting the sum of thirty thousand pounds for the service.
I am, Sir, your most obedient servant.
(signed) R.W. Horton.
J.C. Herries, Esq.
&c. &c. &c.
London, 2d April 1824
I have the honour to report to you, for the information of the Right Honourable Lord Bathurst, that having received directions from His Majesty’s Government to proceed to Ireland, for the purpose of superintending a limited emigration to the province of Upper Canada, I left Liverpool on the 18th, and arrived at Fermoy, in the county of Cork, on the 20th of May 1823.
Being a stranger in Ireland, I was ordered to act under the advice of Lord Ennismore and the magistrates; and in order to receive the full benefit of their assistance, I made Fermoy my principal place of residence. I was happy to find that the very liberal conditions proposed by His Majesty’s Government to such as were disposed to emigrate, met the cordial approbation of all the gentlemen to whom they were communicated. Lords Ennismore, Kinston and Doneraile, Mr. Becher, M.P. Mr. Jephson, and the Rev. Dr. Woodward, were most friendly to the scheme, anxious for its success, and ready to give me every assistance in their power.
On the 2d of June my final instructions arrived; and as the gentlemen I was directed to consult were unanimously of opinion that I should take as many persons as possible from the disturbed baronies in the county of Cork, which were at that time in a very distracted state, I caused several hundred copies of the memorandum containing the terms of emigration, to be distributed in the towns of Fermoy, Mitchelstown, Doneraile, Charleville, Newmarket, Kanturk, Mallow and the villages within that circle. The noblemen and the principal magistrates in the different towns condescended in the kindest manner to become the organs of communication with the persons wishing to emigrate, to take in their names, and the number of their respective families; as it was intended from these lists to make, under their advice and direction, a final selection.
The whole business was conducted in the true spirit of conciliation; for in every town or village from which emigrants were expected, I called upon the Roman Catholic priest, as well as the more respectable inhabitants, to afford them an opportunity of asking any questions they chose to put, or of giving them an account of the nature of the benefit which Government offered, through me, for the acceptance of the poor.
Several priests entered into the matter with much zeal, and one of them promised to read the memorandum from the pulpit, and to explain to his parishoners the great advantage to themselves and families, which must accrue from emigrating on such liberal conditions.
Not satisfied with giving all the information I could to the Magistrates, and calling upon the principal inhabitants, I made myself accessible to all the people, and entered patiently into their views and feelings, answering their inquiries, and affording them as true a description of the country as I was capable of giving. On these occasions it was that I found the benefit of being well acquainted with Upper Canada, the place of their destination; I was able to set before them the length of the journey, the obstacles in their way, and the means of removing them. I explained the manner of clearing lands and cultivating the virgin soil; I dissipated their apprehensions concerning wild beasts and the danger of being lost in the woods. Many, after being satisfied in regard to the excellence of the soil and climate of Upper Canada, were anxious to know whether, in case they liked the country, there would be room for their friends, and whether they would likewise be granted lands, and enjoy the same benefits and privileges which were now offered to them. To these inquiries I made answer that I could not give them any positive information as to the future intentions of Government; but this I knew, that there was room enough in Canada for many more than would ever come from Ireland, and that if they were industrious and sober they would be able, in a few years, to send for their friends and relations themselves, if no public assistance should at that time be given to emigrants.
The care thus taken to give every information produced the happiest affects; the people received the proposals most readily, and were exceedingly grateful for the kind attention with which they were treated. I had been frequently told that much opposition might be expected from the Roman Catholic priests, as the plan, if successful, would lessen their congregations and circumscribe their influence. But so far was this from being the case, that in most of the parishes which I visited, I found them on the best terms with the resident protestant clergymen; and instead of giving unfavourable impressions of the plan, they most generally gave it their support.
There was a difference of opinion among many intelligent persons whom I found it advantageous to consult, regarding the description of persons that ought to be received. It was contended, that a few respectable persons should be taken by way of encouraging others, and of proving that there was no deception, but that the measure was intended chiefly for the relief and comfort of the poorer classes. On the other hand it was justly remarked, that to receive persons in tolerable circumstances was not giving the experiment a fair trial; for unless the paupers themselves could be settled comfortably, at a very moderate expense, emigration, as a public measure, ought to be abandoned: that there was no wisdom in affording to persons having some property, the means of emigrating, because they had already the power, if so disposed, of proceeding to Canada: that there might be reason for not wishing that even small capitalists should remove from such a country as Ireland, and certainly strong reason for not giving them direct encouragement.
After a little time the general opinion accorded with the determination of His Majesty’s Government, to make such a fair experiment of an emigration confined to paupers as would not only settle its expediency on the ground of expences, but what was of still more consequence, show how far it was calculated to promote the permanent comfort and happiness of the persons sent out.
Acting, therefore, agreeably to this determination, I confined myself strictly to the selection of persons of no capital whatever, and who might more properly be called paupers; satisfied that if such succeeded in Canada, persons disposed to emigrate, having some property, would be sufficiently encouraged, since they would have the fullest evidence before them, that industry and prudence, without their advantages, would in time ensure success.
In regard to the former conduct of those who applied to emigrate, I made no particular enquiry, being convinced that a change of circumstances so great as that of becoming proprietors of land themselves, and far removed from the influence of the turbulent, the selfish and designing, would effectually cure the discontented. Moreover, it was judged expedient by the gentlemen under whose guidance I acted, to take them out of a troubled district, that some of the more firy [fiery?] spirits might be disposed of, and consequently those left behind would find more steady employment, and be induced to live in greater tranquillity.
On the 2d of June I began to advertise for emigrants, and to distribute copies of the terms on which the Government was disposed to send them to Canada. Before the end of the month I had distributed 600 tickets for embarkation, a greater number than I could have taken; but I acted on the presumption that some would keep back from sickness, or imaginary fears and apprehensions, or the advice of friends. The event proved that I was right, for on the 1st of July 460 only were embarked, but I was able next day to select 111 more, making in all 571, which was as many as could be accommodated. During the time that I was collecting the people, two vessels, of about 500 tons each, were engaged in the Thames to convey them from Cork to Quebec: these vessels were amply supplied with provisions, and every comfort in case of sickness that could be imagined; two medical officers of experience, one for each ship, were employed. The vessels and stores were strictly inspected, and they were in every respect as well found as if they had been fitted out by a company of passengers for their own convenience, safety and comfort. Thus, in rather less than a month from the time of issuing the proposals, the emigrants were on board, and the ships ready to sail; such was the promptness of Government in making its arrangements, and the active exertions of the nobility and magistrates in enabling me to select the requisite number. For their kindness in thus forwarding the object of my journey to Ireland, as well as their attention to myself, I feel exceedingly grateful.
During the voyage nothing happened of importance; the rations were abundant and comfortable; the men were allowed cocoa for breakfast, and nearly half a pint of spirits, which was, perhaps, not too much. The women and children were allowed tea and sugar. The best proof of the attention paid to them on the voyage, arises from the good health which they enjoyed, as only one woman and eight children died on the passage, and these from the small pox, which had unfortunately got into both ships, and not from any causes that could be attributed to their change of circumstances or situation.
It may be worth remarking, as it is so characteristic of the fondness of the Irish people for potatoes, that the men preferred them to cocoa, which they refused for several days to taste, till they saw the officers of the ship repeatedly breakfasting upon it. The children during sickness called constantly for potatoes, refusing arrow or root or any other ailments more congenial to their situation; and nothing could prevail on man, woman or child to eat plum pudding, which as is usual on ship board was part of the Sunday’s dinner.
Few of them would eat the best English cheese; and when it was served out as part of their ration, it was most commonly thrown overboard. We arrived at Quebec in the Stakesby, on the 2d of September, after a passage of eight weeks; the Hebe had been in port two days. I shipped the people from the transport on board the steam boats without landing them, and proceeded to Montreal on the 4th, having been detained only two days. We were much facilitated in our progress by the orders which His Excellency Lord Dalhousie had given, before our arrival, to the Quartermaster General, to find provisions and transport as far as Prescott, in Upper Canada, a distance of about three hundred and twenty miles.
We reached Montreal on the 6th; and finding the means of transport ready, I forwarded the emigrants by land immediately, without stopping in Montreal, to La Chine, distant ten miles. Here we remained two days, and then set out in boats to Prescott, the crews of each consisting chiefly of emigrants, with two Canadians to guide and steer. Notwithstanding the rapidity of the river and unskilfulness of the men, few of whom had ever been in a boat, we got to Prescott on the 15th. A commissary had preceded us with one month’s provisions; but finding no commissariat establishment at Prescott, and being unwilling to incur what I considered an unnecessary expense, I receipted the month’s supply and allowed the commissary to return to Montreal.
Here I likewise parted with the two surgeons, Mr. Hamilton and Mr. Dixon, whose indefatigable attention to the emigrants, and kind and benevolent treatment, cannot be sufficiently praised; such was their zeal and anxiety for the success of the emigration, that they volunteered their services from Quebec to Prescott, a distance of more than three hundred miles, and were of great service in preserving the health of the emigrants while passing up the river in boats, which was the most tedious and difficult part of the journey. I could not see them depart without regret, and tendering to them my grateful acknowledgements, as the good conduct of the people during the whole voyage and afterwards, may, in a great measure, be attributed to their steady and humane attention to their wants. On the 18th I left Prescott, and proceeded across the country in waggons to the Mississippi River, a distance of about sixty miles, and arrived on the 22d. Here I found that orders had already been given by His Excellency V.P. Maitland to afford me every possible facility in placing my people on such lands as were vacant and grantable in this neighbourhood. His Excellency also had the goodness to place at my disposal many articles useful to settlers, which remained in the King’s stores, and took a very warm interest in the success of the undertaking.
The township of Ramsay, which the Mississippi intersects, appeared to be exceedingly eligible; but I found that rather more than one-half had been settled there three years before by Scotchmen from the neighbourhood of Glasgow.
The adjacent townships, Huntley, Goulburn and Pakenham, were also partiality settled by disbanded soldiers and others. Being anxious to settle my people as near each other as possible, I determined to examine carefully what lands remained in these townships at the disposal of Government, and fortunately I found a sufficient number of vacant lots fit for settlement; I therefore located in the township of Ramsay 82 heads of families, in Pakenham 29, in Bathurst 1, in Lanark 2, in Beckwith 5, in Goulburn 26, in Darling 3, and in Huntley 34; making in all 182. As there were no barracks or Government buildings in the neighbourhood, and the whole party without shelter, my first care was to provide log-houses for them, and that on their respective lots: fortunately the autumn was unusually dry and warm, and I completed this object by the 1st of November. To do this, I was obliged to go to some additional expense, as the settlers were not sufficiently acquainted with the use of the axe to put up log buildings themselves. However, I feel well assured nothing tends so much to fix the attention of the emigrant to his newly-acquired property, and to ensure his becoming a permanent settler, as a little care and attention in placing him on his land. I have much pleasure in being able to state, that although the detailed account of the expenditure cannot yet be made out, as there is a cow and some little articles still to be supplied, it will fall within that estimate, so that this part of the experiment proves satisfactory. The second part of the experiment, “how far an emigration of the poorer classes to Canada is calculated to promote “their permanent comfort and happiness,” will be best proved by a reference to the letters of the persons sent out, some of them so late as the 20th February, stating their good health and complete satisfaction with the country and climate, and earnestly inviting their friends to join them; and to the fact, that every head of a family will have from three to four acres of land cleared and ready to plant this spring. I therefore feel warranted in stating, that the emigration to the province of Upper Canada, committed to my superintendence, has completely succeeded.
I have the honour to be, Sir, your most obedient humble servant,
(signed) P. Robinson.
British Parliamentary Papers, 1825 XVIII, (131), pp.359-361: Report from PETER ROBINSON, Superintendent of Emigration from Ireland to Canada